Nepal’s role in COP and Issues of Climate Finance

COP 23 and Nepal’s Agenda?

This year becomes very challenging, because of natural disaster around a world. More than 1200 people lost their life because of flood in Nepal, Bangladesh and India. United States of America faced a devastating hurricane and incidence of fire. Many of the part of world faced the recorded hit of heat waves and storms. All this cost to loss of billions of property. Some day before, World Metrological Organization release a report with a warning sign of global average concentration of Carbon dioxide reached 403.3 parts of millions (ppm) in 2016. This reports also says that this concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increase at record speed last year to hit a level not seen for more than three millions years.[1] With this all on the board, worlds leaders, academician, representatives from civil society, climate activists, media and youth are gathering at Bonn for UN Climate Change Conference.

What is COP 23?

This year, 23rd Meeting of Conference of Parties to UNFCCC will take place from 6 to 17 November at Bonn, Germany. The conference will be convened under the Presidency of Fiji. This meeting will focus on the development of guidance on how the Paris Agreement’s provisions will be implemented across a wide range of issues including transparency, adaptation, emission reductions, and provision of finance, capacity building and technology. There will also be the thirteenth session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 13), second part of the first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA 1.2). There will also be the forty seventh session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 47), forty seventh session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 47) and fourth part of the first session of the AD Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA 1.4). The COP, the CMP and the CMA are the supreme decision making bodies for the Convention, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement respectively[2]. This is a regular meeting of UNFCCC but will also be very important as this will be on of the very important steps for the effective implementation of Paris Agreement.

Being a party to the UNFCCC, Nepal has also participated in the COP meeting from the beginning. Nepal has participated with a strong voice raising the important agenda of Nepal. This year also, governmental delegation led by the Honorable Minister for Ministry of Population and Environment, Government of Nepal, representatives from Civil Society, Climate Activist, representatives from media house have already headed to Bonn to participate in meeting.

What are the main agenda of Nepal for COP 23?

Before moving to Bonn, Ministry of Population and Environment has prepared a Nepal’s Agenda paper with a series of consultation workshop in Nepal. Nepal has focused and call for the effective implementation of the Paris Agreement, financial support to undertake the adaptation and mitigation actions in the country. Nepal has also raised the issues related to financing of adaption, financing of loss and damage and consideration of agriculture within the formal negotiations process. Nepal has focused in the harnessing of international cooperation and support in technology development for the implementation of NAPA priority projects. Nepal has also focused for the international effort for the access of small holder farmers to adjust their farmers systems and move toward low carbon efficient practices and to increase the access of farmers to weather and climate information services and financial schemes. Nepal has priorities adaptation finance and technology transfer as a key to Nepal and LDCs. Nepal has also put forwarded to discuss on the modalities for accounting financial resources and clear clarity on the financial instruments, difference between the ODA and the climate finance. Nepal will also raise the issues for the easy and simplified access of international funds, capacity building of Least Developed Countries like Nepal. Nepal will raise all this issues during the different meetings, side events.

Being one of the most vulnerable countries because of the negative impact of climate change and Least Developed Countries, Conference of Parties to UNFCCC is very much important for Nepal, to raise the Nepal’s Agenda on the global arena. So, Nepal delegation team has not to miss any chance to grab the opportunity which is foremost to achieve the Nepal’s goal.

Written By Pradeep

Pradeep is a climate activist from Nepal and currently he is working with Prakriti Resources Centre (PRC) as a Programme Officer. He is also a part of Online Youth Exchange Program run by Care About Climate and China Youth Climate Action Network.

 

The Green Climate Fund Needs to Happen -and a Funding Solution is Offered

The Green Climate Fund is a fund that helps support mitigation and adaptation projects in developing countries. In 2010 countries pledged to provide $100 billion dollars by 2020. Starting today the Green Climate Fund board will start allocating funding to projects around the world according to Reuters UK. This fund is critical to getting resources on the ground to act on climate, but will all the resources be there? Don Bayles tells us more. 

By Don Bayles 
Among the more disturbing aspects of climate change is the amount of havoc done upon the most vulnerable by the most developed. Those in Yemen are now contemplating the reality of eight years’ worth of rain in one monstrous storm. These people have done little, virtually nothing, to contribute to the extraordinary danger they’re facing (as this blog is being written).
The carbon emissions of Yemen are minimal. The United States, however, has contributed approximately 27% of the human generated greenhouse gas inventory within the atmosphere. Per person, no country stands on par with the US. But climate researchers tell us that those within Sub-Sahara Africa and Small Island Land Developing States (SIDS) stand to suffer hugely as climate change impacts grow. For example, those in the Philippines have contributed less than 1 per cent of the carbon in the atmosphere. Yet they will suffer disproportionately as more super typhoons hit their coasts and flood their homes. With this disparity in mind, representatives of the nations at COP 20 in Lima last year concluded that a “green fund” was needed. The fund would be collected among developing nations and distributed among the nations which have the most to lose from climate change. One hundred billion dollars has been identified as a goal. But will the fund actually be collected? And if so when? And who will be funding it? Will there be money for those in need?

President Obama seeks to participate fully in Paris. But given the restraints imposed by a contrary Congress, there are good reasons to doubt whether the United States will be able to set an example for the world by paying its fair share to the fund. And while the President may be able to find a small measure of funding from contingency sources, it is unlikely that a substantial American payment will be available in the absence of congressional approval. And if the USA balks, other developed nations may follow. And what are vulnerable countries to do?

Solutions for meeting the green fund challenge have not been advanced in abundance. A French source recently suggested that without the Green Fund, there can be no agreement. It is expected that representatives from developed nations will bring their most innovative thinkers to the challenge. But there must be an answer and as of today, the substance of that answer remains unclear.

Let’s realize we are all in this together. Are there any available pools of funds? The instinctive answer is no. One suggestion is offered here: Most every developed nation has a defense budget. These financial pools are especially substantial among the Americans, Russians and Chinese. What if we developed nations all collectively agreed to reduce the amount of our defense expenditures by 10 per cent? And at the same time, we could offer the bulk of those savings to those already being hammered by climate change –but who contributed virtually nothing to the formation of the problem. A portion of the ten percent defense savings could also be dedicated to each nation’s establishment of a renewable energy infrastructure. With all respect, doesn’t this make sense?

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Top five countries by military expenditure in 2014.
According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.[1]

 

The funding could form a viable green fund. (See chart above). No one will be disadvantaged as we are all agreeing to the same proportionate reduction. All will benefit as we mitigate impacts and perhaps also use a part of the ten percent (another 2 percent?) for adaptation investments in renewable energy infrastructure. The establishment of a real green fund would be prioritized, developing nations would gain assistance and infrastructure investment within the global economy would bring jobs and clean energy. With the U.S. working alongside its historical opponents, perhaps something bigger could emerge here. At a time when there has never been a more compelling justification for international cooperation, maybe this is a plan worth considering.